Baumstark assigns it to the fifth century. But the Messias will intervene and execute Divine wrath upon the enemies of the nation, and a cataclysm of nature, which is depicted with truly apocalyptic sublimity, will forerun the beginning of the new era. The KJV was never a Catholic Bible. There are reasons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the Acts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the second century, under the name of a disciple of St. John, called Leucius. It was already known when Tertullian wrote, and during the first centuries enjoyed a considerable popularity, both East and West. The apocalyptic opening has been found in a Latin MS. of the eighth century, and published by M. R. James, “Apocrypha Anecdota” (Cambridge, 1893). Clement of Alexandria repeatedly quotes from a Knpuyp.a Ilerpov, concerning whose credibility he obviously has no doubt. This pseudo-Gospel is unique among the apocrypha, inasmuch as it describes a part of the hidden life of Our Lord between the ages of five and twelve. While it is possible that St. Justin may have heard of such a report, and even probable that the procurator transmitted some account of the events at Jerusalem to Rome, it is on the other hand admissible that Justin’s assertion was based on nothing more than hypothesis. This section begins with Paul’s departure from the island of Mileto, and is evidently based on the canonical narrative in Acts. There is abundant evidence that the Petrine apocalypse was believed authentic in many quarters of the early Church, and enjoyed in a certain measure canonical authority. Harnack asserts that the Hebrew Gospel was entirely independent, the tradition it contained being parallel to that of Matthew. The fact that two canonical books are associated with his name, together with a genuine literary power, a profoundly religious spirit pervading Fourth Esdras, and some Messianic points of contact with the Gospels combined to win for it an acceptance among Christians unequalled by any other apocryphon. Critics find that the “Protoevangelium” is a composite into which two or three documents enter. A Messianic deliverer is looked for, but he is to be merely human. The Acts of Paul, therefore, adds nothing trustworthy to our knowledge of the Apostle of the Gentiles. We have no other testimony of it. The names were known to Pliny, and figure in the Talmudic traditions. All mankind sinned with Adam. The relation is appended to some Latin texts of the Acta Pilati, under the title “Historia Josephi”. The complete text was thought to have perished when it was discovered in two Ethiopic MSS. The word apocrypha, like many other words, has undergone a major change in meaning throughout the centuries. The writer places on Our Lord’s lips descriptions of liturgical observances prevalent in his own and earlier periods. Gospel of Gamaliel.âDr. The former had no other motive than that of a pious fraud, being sometimes moved by a real though misguided zeal, as witness the author of the Pseudo-Matthew: Amcor Christi est cui satisfecimus. Justin, Tertullian, and Origen seem to have been acquainted with the Martyrdom; Sts. (See CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.) In bold contrast to the Infancy narrative of St. Luke, where the Divinity is almost effaced, the author makes the Child a miracle-worker and intellectual prodigy, and in harmony with Docetism, leaves scarcely more than the appearance of humanity in Him. The Apocrypha / Deuterocanonical books teach many things that are not true and are not historically accurate. The prayer breathes a Christian spirit, and it is not entirely certain that it is really of Jewish origin. They were added by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent after Luther rejected it. For this end there will be a resurrection of all Israel and a judgment in which the Son of Man will render to everyone according to his deeds. Pseudo-Epistles of St. Paul; Correspondence with the Corinthians. This is also styled by non-Catholics the First Book of Esdras, since they give to the first canonical Esdrine writing the Hebrew form Ezra. In fact Eusebius classes it among the antilegomena, or works having locally quasicanonical authority.âActs of Paul and Thecla. A patriarchal origin is ascribed to the great Jewish feasts. Several ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint contain it as an appendix to the Psalter. From it also he derived his four cardinal virtues: prudence, righteousness (or justice), fortitude, temperance; phronesis, dikaiosune, andreia, sophrosine, and it was through Fourth Machabees that this category was appropriated by early Christian ascetical writers. "Apocrypha" is a Protestant term for the deuterocanonical books. Its title reads: “This psalm was written by David himself in addition to the number, when he had fought with Goliath.” It is based on various passages in the Old Testament, and there is no evidence that it was ever written in Hebrew. In a vehement and glowing style the book delineates under its prophetic guise the impiety of Israel’s Hasmonean rulers and Sadducean priests. At a very early period orthodox writers and, presumably, ecclesiastical authorities found it necessary to distinguish between the genuine inspired books and a multitude of spurious rivalsâa fact which is a very important element in the formation of the Christian canon. In 1876 an ancient Syriac document, entitled “The Teaching of Addai, the Apostle”, was published for the first time. However, the name Apocrypha soon came to have an unfavorable signification which it still retains, comporting both want of genuineness and canonicity. (See Saint Bartholomew, Apostle). For instance it is the “Protoevangelium” which first tells that Mary was the miraculous offspring of Joachim and Anna, previously childless; that when three years old the child was taken to the Temple and dedicated to its service, in fulfilment of her parents’ vow. (2) The Epistle to the Messanienses, i.e. We have no other certain knowledge of this apocryphon. Three men from the East carry off the Apostles‘ bodies but are overtaken. The Jewish portion is thought to have appeared in the first century of our era; the remainder, in the middle of the second. The book purports to be a series of predictions delivered in written form to the safekeeping of Josue (Joshua) by Moses when the latter, in view of his approaching death, appointed Josue as his successor. In the genuine Epistle to the Colossians, Paul, after instructing them to send their Epistle to Laodicea, adds: “read that which is from the Laodiceans”. In setting up reason as the master of human passion, the author was distinctly influenced by Stoic philosophy. This apocalypse has with solid reasons been assigned to the early years after Herod‘s death, between 4 B.C. This part is distinguished by insistence upon a sharp conflict between the righteous of the nation and their wicked opponents both within and without Israel. The Apocrypha continued in common use among Christians until the Reformation, when the Hebrew canon was chosen as the Protestant Old Testament. Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache, or Teaching, of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formally apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently. )âActs of St. Philip. On the ground that there is no indication of an acquaintance with the book outside the Orient, and that Arabic and Coptic recensions of it are known, Dr. A. Baumstark regards the work as a compilation originating in Monophysite circles, and current in the national Churches of that sect in Syria and Egypt. Both are tainted with Nestorianism, and seem to have come from a single Bartholomew legend. It has been employed in various ways by early patristic writers, who have sometimes entirely lost sight of the etymology. Messianism of course plays an important part in apocalyptic eschatology and the idea of the Messias in certain books received a very high development. Even in the East, already the home of pseudographic literature, Origen (d. 254) exhibits caution regarding the books outside the canon (Comment. The Apocrypha in the Septuagint In the third century B.C., Jewish scholars translated the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) into Greek, resulting in the Septuagint. Clement of Alexandria was acquainted with the pseudograph. The ostensible purpose of these deliverances is to confirm the Mosaic laws and the admonitions in Deuteronomy. These apocryphal books were thus excluded from the canon of Scripture, and yet in many cases retain some religious value. However, not the Chaldeans, but angels, will bring about the destruction. While Christianity was struggling against the forces of Roman paganism, there was a natural tendency to dwell upon the part which a representative of the Roman Empire played in the supreme events of Our Lord’s life, and to shape the testimony of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea, even at the cost of exaggeration and amplification, into a weapon of apologetic defense, making that official bear witness to the miracles, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ. They abound in extravagant and highly colored marvels, and were interspersed by long pretended discourses of the Apostles which served as vehicles for the Gnostic predications. The nucleus of this collection was formed by the Latin Passions, or Martyrdoms, of those Apostles who had been neglected by the Gnostic Acts, viz., the two Jameses, Philip (Matthew? Jerome alone is positively unfavorable. 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