[, Lomaestro BM, Bailie GR. [, Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. J Urol 2007;177:639-43. Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use. Sometimes equivalent reactions are catalyzed by proteins with different metal centers; the metal binding sites and proteins have evolved separately for each type of metal center. Of the trace minerals, this element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. [, Dixon LB, Winkleby MA, Radimer KL. [. Zinc deficiency. It may be easier to identify the roles that zinc doesnt play in the body, than the roles it does play. The doses of zinc used in the AREDS study (80 mg per day of zinc in the form of zinc oxide for 6.3 years, on average) have been associated with a significant increase in hospitalizations for genitourinary causes, raising the possibility that chronically high intakes of zinc adversely affect some aspects of urinary physiology . [, Stur M, Tittl M, Reitner A, Meisinger V. Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration. Changes in cytokine production and T cell subpopulations in experimentally induced zinc-deficient humans. [, Eby GA, Halcomb WW. In 77 participants with natural colds, a combination of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges (37 mg zinc every 2–3 wakeful hours) was also found to have no effect on the number of asymptomatic patients after 7 days of treatment . Zinc deficiency and taste disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:181-2. Nurs Times 1995;91:68, 70. ABSTRACT. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have abnormal zinc metabolism and low serum zinc levels , and clinicians frequently treat skin ulcers with zinc supplements . These values, which vary by age and gender , include the following: The current RDAs for zinc are listed in Table 1 . Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Iron fortification programs have been credited with improving the iron status of millions of women, infants, and children. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Phytates—which are present in whole-grain breads, cereals, legumes, and other foods—bind zinc and inhibit its absorption [2,12,13]. The body requires zinc to develop and activate T-lymphocytes [2,53]. [, Beck FW, Prasad AS, Kaplan J, Fitzgerald JT, Brewer GJ. Supplemental zinc might also be appropriate in certain situations. In: Mills CF, ed. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1985;319:158-63. Because your body doesn’t naturally produce zinc, you must obtain it through food or … [, Rink L, Gabriel P. Zinc and the immune system. [. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68 (2 Suppl):499S-508S. An analysis of NHANES III data found that 35%–45% of adults aged 60 years or older had zinc intakes below the estimated average requirement of 6.8 mg/day for elderly females and 9.4 mg/day for elderly males. Recently a group of nucleic-acid binding proteins, with a repeated sequence containing the amino acids cysteine and histidine, were shown to bind as many as eleven zinc atoms necessary for protein function (transcribing DNA to RNA).10 Zinc plays a structural role, forming the peptide into multiple domains or "zinc fingers" by means of coordination to cysteine and histidine (Figure 1.2A See color plate section, page C-l.). Meat and seafood are rich in zinc.1, 2 The role of zinc in human health and functioning has primarily focused on dietary supplementation for the promotion of health and disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:300-7. J Infect Dis 2008 ;197:795-802. [, Fabris N, Mocchegiani E. Zinc, human diseases and aging. Zinc is a bluish-white metal which is used to make other metals, or to cover other metals, such as steel, as a protective coating. High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. Dermatology 1996;193:361-3. Much of the zinc in animals and plants has no known function, but it may be maintaining the structures of proteins that activate and deactivate genes.11. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. [, Fischer Walker CL, Black RE. More recently, a Cochrane review concluded that "zinc (lozenges or syrup) is beneficial in reducing the duration and severity of the common cold in healthy people, when taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms" . 8. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins, RJ, eds. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1202-8. Met Ions Biol Syst 2004;41:103-37. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1167-73. While use of these products as directed (0.5–1.5 g/day) is not of concern, chronic, excessive use can lead to zinc toxicity, resulting in copper deficiency and neurologic disease. J Nutr 2001;131:1232-46. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998;36:99-101. Weight loss, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy can also occur [5,8,29-33]. 1.1: Biological Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Chromium, Vanadium, and Nickel, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FBook3A_Bioinorganic_Chemistry_(Bertini_et_al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1225-35. Acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. [, Nishi Y. Zinc and growth. Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. The author of another review completed in 2004 also concluded that zinc can reduce the duration and severity of cold symptoms . Zinc is widely used for plating that imparts corrosion resistant upper layer to various metals. All the Ni-proteins known to date are from plants or bacteria.13,14 However, about 50 years elapsed between the crystallization of jack-bean urease in 1925 and the identification of the nickel component in the plant protein. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Zinc Sulfate. [, Simmer K, Thompson RP. Pediatrics 2008;121:326-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995. Such toxicity has been reported in individuals who used 2 or more standard 2.4 oz tubes of denture cream per week [20,21]. [, Jafek BW, Linschoten MR, Murrow BW. But little is known about the structure of the factor or of any other specific chromium complexes from plants, animals, or bacteria. 1986 Jul;31(7):724-31. Nickel is a component of a hydrolase (urease), of hydrogenase, of CO dehydrogenase, and of S-methyl CoM reductase, which catalyzes the terminal step in methane production by methanogenic bacteria. Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-the-counter drugs sold as cold remedies. [. Effect of marginal zinc deficiency on human growth and development. Several important functions of zinc include: Making DNA and RNA, which is important to actively dividing cells J Infect Dis 2000;182 (Suppl):S62-8. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Zinc is an important trace mineral that people need to stay healthy. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Although studies examining the effect of zinc treatment on cold symptoms have had somewhat conflicting results, overall zinc appears to be beneficial under certain circumstances. When zinc deficiency does occur, it is usually due to inadequate zinc intake or absorption, increased losses of zinc from the body, or increased requirements for zinc [29,30,37]. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) FoodData Central  lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides a comprehensive list of foods containing zinc arranged by nutrient content and by food name. Zinc helps maintain the integrity of skin and mucosal membranes . Second, the biological roles of each remain largely unknown.18 Finally, each has served as a probe to characterize the sites of other metals, such as iron and zinc. [, Ploysangam A, Falciglia GA, Brehm BJ. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:476S-9S. Many denture creams have now been reformulated to eliminate zinc. [, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, Snell D, Fitzgerald JT. Zinc is a common element in nucleic-acid polymerases and transcription factors, where its role is considered to be structural rather than catalytic. Zinc toxicity can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Lancet 2005;366:999-1004. Results from a large cross-sectional survey suggest that 44% of children with sickle cell disease have a low plasma zinc concentration , possibly due to increased nutrient requirements and/or poor nutritional status . Updated: July 15, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide. Zinc deficiency causes alterations in immune response that probably contribute to increased susceptibility to infections, such as those that cause diarrhea, especially in children . [, Wester PO. J Pediatr 1998;132:467-71. Several studies are described below in which zinc is administered as a lozenge or zinc-containing syrup that temporarily "sticks" in the mouth and throat. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. [, Krebs NF. Zinc is a nutrient that plays many vital roles in your body. [, van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, Witteman JC, Klaver CC, Hofman A, et al. Acta Med Scand 1980;208:209-12. J Nutr 2003;133:1485S-9S. J Lab Clin Med 1994;124:322-7. Nutr Rev 1998;56:27-8. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm166931.htm, Advance data from vital and health statistics no 258, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr36/fanrr36.pdf, http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/files/ENAcute_Diarrhoea_reprint.pdf, Oysters, cooked, breaded and fried, 3 ounces, Baked beans, canned, plain or vegetarian, ½ cup, Breakfast cereal, fortified with 25% of the DV for zinc, 1 serving, Oatmeal, instant, plain, prepared with water, 1 packet, Chicken breast, roasted, skin removed, ½ breast. Zinc supplementation alone significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD in subjects at higher risk but not in the total study population. Aging (Milano) 1995;7:77-93. Zinc is not stored in the body; therefore, dietary intake is required. Zinc supplementation during lactation. Taking the antibiotic at least 2 hours before or 4–6 hours after taking a zinc supplement minimizes this interaction . [, Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE, Brown KH, Gardner JM, Hidayat A, et al. After an average follow-up period of 6.3 years, supplementation with antioxidants plus zinc (but not antioxidants alone) significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD and reduced visual acuity loss. In zinc deficient animals protein synthesis is disturbed. [, Black RE. Copper and Zinc, Biological Role and Significance of Copper/Zinc Imbalance. Thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton®) and hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix® and HydroDIURIL®) increase urinary zinc excretion by as much as 60% . BMJ 2003;326:409-10. Nutrition 1995;11:93-9. Numerous case reports of anosmia (loss of the sense of smell), in some cases long-lasting or permanent, have been associated with the use of zinc-containing nasal gels or sprays [17,18]. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. High zinc levels can lead to issues like nausea, dizziness, vomiting and chest pain. 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