apathy evaluation scale subscales

The 4-class model was the most appropriate (Table 6). We investigated models with one to five classes and determined the optimal number of classes for our sample with several statistical indicators. All post-hoc comparison differences were significant at p < 0.05 (Emotionally apathetic: BDI mean = 8.0, SD = 8.8, SHAPS mean = 47.6, SD = 5.6, MFIS mean = 20.9, SD = 14.0; Behaviourally/socially apathetic: BDI mean = 16.2, SD = 11.8, SHAPS mean = 45.7, SD = 5.8, MFIS mean = 34.9, SD = 17.6; Generally motivated: BDI mean = 9.7, SD = 9.0, SHAPS mean = 50.4, SD = 4.9, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 17.3; Generally apathetic: BDI mean = 12.8, SD = 13.0, SHAPS mean = 42.3, SD = 6.6, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 26.7). Participants were the same as in Study 2. The Irritability subscale includes poor temper control, verbal and physical aggression, behavioral inflexibility, and … The PEAR-Apathy subscale was validated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)-Apathy, Passivity in Dementia Scale (PDS), and NPI-Depression. A concurrent validity study showed that the IA assesses apathy as effectively as the Neuro Psychiatric Inventory apathy domain. Item content of the Apathy scale samples “problems with initiation, psychomotor retardation, spontaneity, drive, persistence, loss of energy and interest, lack of concern about self/care, and/or blunted affective expression”. Rationale and protocol of the ENGAGE study: a double-blind randomized controlled preference trial using a comprehensive cohort design to measure the effect of a cognitive and leisure-based intervention in older adults with a memory complaint. The factor analysis identified three distinct subscales, namely behavioural activation (BA), social motivation (SM) and emotional sensitivity (ES). We evaluated 115 subjects using the IA, consisting of 19 healthy elderly subjects, 24 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), 12 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 60 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background: Apathy is usually defined as reduced interest and participation in various activities. As a result, the mechanisms underlying variability in apathy are still poorly understood. Here, we adapted the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) [13], a tool first developed to measure apathy in PD, to produce and validate a novel measure to assess and dissect the profile of apathy in healthy people: the Apathy Motivation Index (AMI). Yes Each individual’s probability of class membership was also estimated together with the overall model so that they can be placed into the appropriate class. Serotonergic system, cognition, and BPSD in Alzheimer's disease. [Validation of the Short Cognitive Battery (B2C). It was also positively associated with the BDI (ρ = 0.26, p < 0.01) and MFIS total (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. A small number (2.1%), on the other hand, scored higher than the global mean on all AMI subscales. However, these measures were not perfectly correlated suggesting that there are also unique aspects of anhedonia not related to apathy. There are a host of standardized measures of frontal cognitive changes, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Test. Conversely, the AMI ES subscale was correlated with the DAS emotional subscale but not behavioural/cognitive initiation subscale. Most people (60.8%) were identified as ‘generally motivated’ with their group average on each AMI subscale being lower than the overall mean. Specifically, while individuals who were behaviourally and/or socially more apathetic were likely to be more fatigued, people who were emotionally apathetic experienced less fatigue in general. Each item was rated on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher score indicating greater apathy (0–3: 0 = ‘Almost Always’, 3 = ‘Hardly Ever’ for positively scored items). Fatigue can be a symptom of reduced motivation characterised by the lack of energy to perform actions. PLoS ONE 12(1): García-Ramos R, Villanueva C, del Val J, Matías-Guíu J. Rev Neurol (Paris). Each item on the AMI was scored from 0–4, with a higher score indicating greater apathy. The emotionally apathetic people were also more hedonic than the generally apathetic class (Fig 4B). Data from a new group of 479 people recruited via online adverts and Prolific Academic (www.prolific.ac) was used for the analysis (for demographic information see Table 2). 2003 May-Jun;29(3 Pt 1):266-72. Thus, these individuals were classified as ‘generally apathetic’. Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? By iteratively comparing models one class apart (i.e. The most psychometrically robust measures for assessing apathy across any disease population appear to be the Apathy Evaluation Scale and the apathy subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory based on the criteria set in this review. Epub 2007 Sep 21. In contrast the ES scale was negatively correlated with depression and fatigue. We observed that the AMI SM was correlated with both the BA and ES subscales. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the scale and subscales were also satisfactory, indicating stable responses across time (roverall: 0.83, rBA: 0.88, rSM: 0.84, rES: 0.72). No, Is the Subject Area "Motivation" applicable to this article? The findings presented here show for the first time that apathy in the healthy population can be dissected into four subtypes: ‘emotionally apathetic’, ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’, ‘generally motivated’ and ‘generally apathetic’. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Impaired social life was highlighted by Sockeel et al. background section, the scale allows a rapid and reliable assessment of negative symptoms. Apathy was assessed using the 18-item clinician-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES).15 The AES was only administered at 2011 and 2015, precluding an analysis of baseline AES scores. After the EFA, twenty-one items were excluded, as their loadings were less than 0.40. The PEAR-Environment subscale was validated using the Ambiance Scale and the Crowding Index. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Would you like email updates of new search results? Our finding suggests that apathy and anhedonia have a close relationship in the general population, with those individuals characterised by higher levels of apathy also more likely to report experiencing anhedonia. The scale includes a compre- Apathy is a unique, multidimensional syndrome commonly encountered in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Funding: This research was supported by a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellowship to MH, an A*STAR National Science Scholarship to YA, a BBSRC Anniversary Future Leader Fellowship (BB/M013596/1) to MAJA, and a Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Training Fellowship to KM. This study was designed to establish the validity and reliability of the apathy inventory (IA), a rating scale for global assessment of apathy and separate assessment of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest. He defined apathy as “lack of motivation not attributable to diminished level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress.” (Marin, 1991). This is supported by positive associations found between the AMI BA subscale with DAS (Dimensional Apathy Scale [14]) executive and behavioural/cognitive initiation but not the emotional subscale. It is a frequent consequence of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. In this study we used the CAS3, the scale for assessment of spontaneity about patients’ ADL. 1- versus 2-class, then 2- versus 3-class etc.) Thus, it has been suggested that in the event of substantial low item inter-correlations, the CFI criterion could be relaxed to > 0.80 [30]. 2020 Mar 11;22(3):e17167. Patients were also administered the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R). Rather than discuss every individual association between the scale/subscales, we highlight key findings here. (A) 3D scatterplot illustrating the distribution of each healthy individual’s mean rating along the three AMI subscales. The other subtypes were labelled ‘emotionally apathetic’ (11.9%) and ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’ (25.3%) as they had a lower average score than overall only on that/those particular AMI subscale(s). Brain Imaging Behav. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t005. As expected, the AMI correlated with established assessments of apathy, depression, anhedonia and fatigue, providing evidence of good construct validity (Table 5). Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Anhedonia is a mood disorder characterised by an inability to derive pleasure. A lack of motivation can significantly affect everyday life, particularly in education and employment opportunities [10, 11]. Information for the IA can be obtained from the patient or from a caregiver. RESULTS: The PEAR-Environment subscale and PEAR-Apathy subscales each consists of six items rated on a 1-4 scale. The three-factor structure of the 18-item AMI (Table 1) was confirmed, and had good model fit indices (RMSEA = 0.076 with 90% CI of 0.068–0.083, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.83). Copyright: © 2017 Ang et al. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g004. Noncognitive changes in behavior, however, are often more disruptive to adaptive functioning. Next, the six highest loading items for each factor were retained to form a revised 18-item Apathy-Motivation Index (AMI) [25]. The factor loadings for each subscale were good (BA: 0.56–0.75; SM: 0.54–0.66; ES: 0.46–0.78). BA relates to an individual’s tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour, SM examines a person’s engagement of social interactions and ES probes an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in MPlus [22]. These results indicated that the four apathy subtypes were distinct and overlapped differently with the closely related outcomes of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed by Marin (1991) as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. The Person–Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale consists of environment and apathy subscales, which allow for examination of environmental impact on apathy.  |  The IA is a reliable method for assessing in demented and non-demented elderly subjects several dimensions of the apathetic syndrome, and also the subject's awareness of these symptoms. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Objective: This study was designed to establish the validity and reliability of the apathy inventory (IA), a rating scale for global assessment of apathy and separate assessment of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) [34] and sample-size adjusted Bayesian Information Criterion (sBIC) [35] are descriptive fit indices with lower values indicating more optimal model fit. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938, Editor: Maria Gulinello, Yeshiva University Albert Einstein College of Medicine, UNITED STATES, Received: September 25, 2016; Accepted: December 22, 2016; Published: January 11, 2017. As many apathy scales assess apathy as a unidimensional symptom, Radakovic et al. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. In the caregiver-based evaluation, AD subjects had significantly higher scores than controls, both for global apathy score and for the lack of interest dimension. [27] scored each item in a binary manner (0–1: 0 = either ‘Strongly Agree’ or ‘Agree’, 1 = either ‘Strongly Disagree’ or ‘Disagree’). Apathy is a disorder of motivation characterised by reduced action initiation and goal-directed behaviour [1, 2]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t002. The four apathy-motivation subtypes were predictive of different associations with depression (A), anhedonia (B) and fatigue (C). The Apathy subscale comprises reduced activity and initiative, poor perseverance and quality of work, impaired judgment, personal neglect, and blunting of affect. 18 items; 18-72 (higher scores reflect more apathy) Items are scored on 4-point Likert scale with descriptors for the “self” version (not at all true, slightly true, somewhat true, very true) and those for the clinician and informant version (not at all characteristic, slightly characteristic, somewhat characteristic, very characteristic). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal subjects. Apathy was assessed using the 18-item clinician-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES).15 The AES was only administered at 2011 and 2015, precluding an analysis of baseline AES scores. A simple three-factor structure was the most parsimonious account of the data. It consists of 13 items and 6 subscales (anhedonia, distress, avolition, blunted affect and alogia, see Table 2) and can be split into the two different factors motivation and pleasure and emotional expressivity [14]. Model fit was assessed using RMSEA, SRMR, and Comparative Fit Index (CFI). Apathy Evaluation Scale, clinician version. 505 people (211 males, 271 females, 23 gender undisclosed, mean age = 28.7 years, SD = 14.9, range = 16–85, N = 27 age undisclosed), recruited from the local communities via online adverts and posters, completed a preliminary 51-item scale. Yes Finally, the AMI total score was negatively correlated with the SHAPS (r = - 0.46, p < 0.01), indicating that apathetic people experience greater anhedonia. Moreover, having high levels of behavioural and social apathy are more associated with other negative states, whereas experiencing emotional apathy on its own may not be associated with higher levels of depression and fatigue. Trials. The Lo-Mendell-Rubin Adjusted Likelihood Ratio Test [33] (LMRT) and Bootstrapped Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT) [32] compares the fit of the current model with K classes to one with K-1 classes. While SM correlated significantly with BA and ES components of motivation, BA did not correlate significantly with ES. Conversely, lower scores indicated higher levels of anhedonia. Significant differences were found between classes for all three measures (BDI: F(3,475) = 14.7, p < 0.001; SHAPS: F(3,475) = 29.9, p < 0.001; MFIS: F(3,475) = 8.63, p < 0.001). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.g001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t004. Briefly, the scale is composed of 33 items grouped in 9 domains, or subscales, which evaluate “reduction in everyday productivity (EP), lack of interest (INT), lack of initiative (INI), extinction of novelty seeking (NS) and motivation (M), blunting of emotional responses (ER), lack of concern (C), poor social life (SL), and extinction of self-awareness (SA)” [ 11 To assess internal reliability, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha values were calculated for both the total score and subscales. Aim: To adapt, translate, and utilize the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) to the Spanish population.Method: We recruited 104 ALS patients (67 of their caregivers) and 49 controls. Yes https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t006. Two hand-scorable, carbonless test booklets (self and family) are available. Future longitudinal studies would benefit from investigating how particular profiles of apathy are risk factors for the development of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The four classes were labelled generally motivated (orange), behaviourally/socially apathetic (green), emotionally apathetic (blue), and generally apathetic (red). This allowed us to define the classes. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To develop the Person-Environment Apathy Rating (PEAR) scale that measures environmental stimulation and apathy in persons with dementia and to evaluate its psychometrics. He defined apathy as “lack of motivation not attributable to diminished level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress.” (Marin, 1991). This gave rise to a preliminary 51-item scale [21]. The DAS consists of 24 items scored on a 4-point Likert scale and measures three apathy subtypes: apathetic impairments associated with planning, attention or organization (executive), indifference or emotional … Every subscale contains 6 items that is each scored from 0–4, with a higher mean score indicating greater apathy. 2006 Mar;21(3):259-65. doi: 10.1002/gps.1457. Descriptive statistics of these additional measures are provided in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t003. Approximately 65% of the inter-correlations in our data were low (< 0.20), hence, we adopted the relaxed CFI cut-off of 0.80 while ensuring that the cut-offs for RMSEA and SRMR were < 0.08. Recently, the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), a semistructured interview yielding a global score, and composite subscores for different domains of apathy (i.e., cognitive, behavioral, affective, self awareness), was developed and given to a sample of patients with PD in … Using the most rigorous psychometric procedures, we then dissected out the different factors that comprise the AMI and determined whether depression, anhedonia and fatigue are related to distinct profiles of apathy. In this study we used the CAS3, the scale for assessment of spontaneity about patients’ ADL. The items are rated on a 4‐point Likert scale from 1 (not at all characteristic) to 4 (very characteristic). Results: When compared to healthy controls, patients showed a significant increase in apathy on the Initiation subscale, and were significantly less apathetic on the Emotional subscale. The patient performed quite normally on cognitive testing but … Each item was rated on a 4-point Likert scale, with a higher score indicating greater apathy (0–3: 0 = ‘Almost Always’, 3 … 83 ALS patients, 75 carers and 83 sex-age-education matched controls participated. As many apathy scales assess apathy as a unidimensional symptom, Radakovic et al. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. Validation of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) section I as a screening and diagnostic instrument for apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, despite the evidence of links between apathy and depression, anhedonia and fatigue in neurological conditions, it remains to be established whether there are similar specific links in the healthy population. All participants gave electronic informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee. A higher score indicates a greater impact of fatigue on the individual. NIH People identified as ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’ were significantly more depressed and fatigued than people who were ‘emotionally apathetic’ or ‘generally motivated’. In LPA, a simple parametric model was assumed and maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate model parameters with the observed data. Sheelakumari R, Bineesh C, Varghese T, Kesavadas C, Verghese J, Mathuranath PS. These observations suggest that there is a partial overlap between apathy and fatigue. Robert PH, Schuck S, Dubois B, Lépine JP, Gallarda T, Olié JP, Goni S, Troy S. Encephale. Also, using abnormality cutoffs, 58% in this group were impaired on at least two apathy subscales, the most common of which was Executive and Initiation apathy, with only 37% displaying global apathy over all DAS subscales and 5% displaying one apathy subscale. This structure had good model fit (RMSEA = 0.051 with 90% CI of 0.048–0.053, SRMR = 0.05) and was supported by scree plot [23], which showed the characteristic “elbow” or plateau in eigenvalues after 3 factors. We also showed for the first time that different subtypes of apathy are predictive of different associations with depression, anhedonia and fatigue in healthy people (Fig 4). Apathy Evaluation Scale, clinician version We used the AES‐C to measure indicators of apathy in the previous 4 weeks. All three AMI subscales were negatively correlated with the SHAPS (lower scores indicate higher levels of anhedonia), suggesting that higher apathy was associated with lower hedonia. These classes showed different propensities for depression, anhedonia and fatigue. Pimouguet C, Sitta R, Wittwer J, Hayes N, Petit-Monéger A, Dartigues JF, Helmer C. BMC Geriatr. All participants gave written informed consent and the study was approved by the University of Oxford ethics committee. Background: Apathy is defined as lack of motivation affecting cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains and is usually assessed by standardized scales, such as the Apathy Evaluation Scale … Yes Each of the six questions for the three subscales is shown in Table 1. An “N/A” option was also available for items that were not applicable. ANOVA was used to examine differences among the four apathy-motivation subtypes on independent measures of depression, anhedonia and fatigue (Fig 4). Objective: By contrast, the ES subscale contained items that probe an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection, which seems similar to the emotional blunting often observed in some patients with apathy [37]. Our initial item validation was adapted from the LARS [13]. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. No, Is the Subject Area "Factor analysis" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t001. aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) in AD . Apathy is the most common behavioral change reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Strong et al., 2017) and has been shown to have negative practical impact, such as caregiver burden (Burke et al., 2015).Apathy is a syndrome composed of different subtypes of demotivation (Radakovic & Abrahams, 2018).The dimensional apathy scale (DAS; Radakovic & Abrahams, 2014) is a … AMI total score showed positive correlations with existing assessments of apathy: DAS total (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) and AES (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed by Marin (1991) as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The SHAPS is a 14-item scale that assesses hedonic tone, or ability to experience pleasure. This is an 18-item scale that addresses behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects of apathy. By using latent profile analysis (LPA) to group individuals with similar AMI profiles, we identified four subtypes of apathy-motivation in our healthy people (Table 7; Fig 3). The Greek version of the scale has been validated in patients with dementia (de Medeiros et al., 2010). In addition, individuals who were ‘emotionally apathetic’, ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’ or ‘generally apathetic’ were significantly more anhedonic than those who were ‘generally motivated’. Key Descriptions. This raises the question of the extent to which apathy can be meaningfully distinguished from these other conditions and whether they might perhaps be associated with discrete dimensions of apathy in healthy individuals. Latent profile analyses showed four different profiles of apathy that were associated with varying levels of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. Objective: This dissertation includes three projects that study care environments and apathy in dementia as well as measures of activity. No, Is the Subject Area "Parkinson disease" applicable to this article? This 46-item behavior rating scale is much easier and less time-consuming to administer than a neuropsychological test battery. I start conversations without being prompted), and (3) emotional sensitivity (ES): feelings of positive and negative affection (e.g. Comparing these two subscales to the conceptualisation of apathy by Levy and Dubois [2] suggests that the BA subscale likely encompasses the ‘cognitive’ and ‘auto-activation’ aspects, while the ES domain appears to correspond more to the ‘emotional-affective’ subtype. No, Is the Subject Area "Behavior" applicable to this article? Although it often occurs in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is also apparent to varying degrees in healthy people [3–9]. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.  |  Yes Results of factor analyses—both exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA)–in large samples indicated that the AMI has a clear three-factor structure with good psychometric properties. The AES is an 18-item scale that measures apathy as a single construct. This was adapted from the original AES (Marin et al., 1991) to assess individuals’ apathy level based on their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors over the past 4 weeks. Whilst apathy is a common syndrome associated with altered motivation [2, 12], it is also frequently comorbid with other states which may have symptoms of reduced motivation, particularly depression, anhedonia and fatigue [3, 4, 15, 16]. To create a comparable measure suitable for the general population, a team of clinical neurologists and university researchers developed, based on their experience with clinically apathetic patients, novel items to specifically reflect each domain of the LARS. While SM correlated with BA and ES, BA did not associate with ES. METHOD: The PEAR scale consists of the PEAR-Environment subscale and PEAR-Apathy subscales. We also found that these two subscales were not significantly correlated, suggesting some dissociation between behavioural and emotional aspects of apathy. Test structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. Given this relationship between motivation and reward, we predicted that anhedonia and apathy would be linked. These three factors were labelled according to their common themes as (1) behavioural activation (BA): tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour (e.g. The DAS is a 24-item scale that assesses apathy on three different subscales, namely executive, emotional and behavioural/cognitive initiation. Value in screening for Alzheimer's disease and depressive disorders in psychiatric practice]. 9 DOMAINS 4 Composite Subscales Everyday productivity Interests Taking initiative Novelty seeking Voluntary actions Emotional responses Concern Social life Self-awareness Intellectual Curiosity Emotion Action Initiation (AI) Self-Awareness (SA) TOTAL SCORE -36 (normal) to +36 (abnormal) Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS) Sockeel et al., 2006 Using exploratory factor analysis (in a sample of 505 people), and then confirmatory analysis (in a different set of 479 individuals), we identified subtypes of apathy in behavioural, social and emotional domains. No, Is the Subject Area "Material fatigue" applicable to this article? R, Wittwer J, Mathuranath PS account of the AMI and other related measures to assess test-retest reliability very! 4‐Point Likert scale from 1 ( not at all characteristic ) to 4 ( very characteristic ) associations apathy! Related outcomes of depression, anhedonia and fatigue such as the Neuro psychiatric Inventory apathy domain Wittwer... One to five classes and determined the optimal number of classes for our sample with statistical... These additional measures are provided in Table 5 and Fig 2 ) emotional behavioural/cognitive... Supporting Information files motivated classes made on a 4-point scale, for,... Greater fatigue than the emotionally apathetic class ( Fig 4A and 4C.. Then 2- versus 3-class etc. correlational results here in text ( details in 1... Complete set apathy evaluation scale subscales features, social and behavioural domains here in text ( details Table... Temporarily unavailable at all characteristic ) to 4 ( very characteristic ) to 4 very. The solution with K classes fit better experienced the greatest depression and fatigue ( C.! Features are temporarily unavailable the behaviourally/socially apathetic class ( Fig 4B ) their profile on apathy subtypes::! 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Data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files than discuss every individual association between the scale/subscales we! Aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the manuscript caregiver responses to IA questions were over... ( ALSFRS-R ), Zeng Y, Fisher DW, Dong H. Lett...

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